On the list below you can find all published articles by Dr. Rita L. Amor, ordered chronologically.
The Artist’s Interview Adapted to Independent Collectives: Graffiti Writers and Street Artists
Keywords: artist’s interview, independent artist, emerging, graffiti, street art, conservationCollecting information about the artistic processes and the artwork's concepts is one of the most common and widespread difficulties in the conservation of contemporary art. However, there are tools used to reach the artist or state such the artist's interview. ...
On the other hand, some independent artistic sectors -or in an emerging situation- not only a limited accessibility to the sources of information is latent, but also seems difficult to understand and evaluate the methods used and most important, how to reach their practitioners. In the same way that the interview with contemporary artists has helped historians, curators, and conservators-restorers to gather accurate data on the exhibition, manipulation and preservation of works of art, this tool is an unlimited source of possibilities when it comes to obtaining information on the creation, processes, longevity and interests of other less institutionalised or recognised forms of contemporary art. In this way, the following article evaluates this need, and explains the adaptation of the artist's interview in sectors related to graffiti and street art.
Paper presented at 20ª Jornada de Conservación de Arte Contemporáneo, hosted by Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofia in Madrid (Spain), February 2019.
Published at Conservación de Arte Contemporáneo, Actas de la 20ª Jornada. MNCARS. Madrid, 2020. NIPO: 828-19-040-5.
Art Galleries, Auction Houses and Urban Art: Evolution and Parallelisms in Independent Art Practices
Keywords: auction, street art, graffiti, urban art, galleries, independent public art, art-marketWith the expansion of independent public art practices and their recognition as accessible and acceptable to the public, their forms were introduced and expanded into traditional environments such as galleries and auction houses. Consequently, specialists, ... gallerists and auctioneers recognised the commercial potential of these works, and accepted graffiti and street art within the contemporary art market repertoire. This originally independent art currently found in the private sector is what is known internationally as ‘Urban Art’. Historically, the birth, evolution and crossing of borders of practices from public spaces to their inclusion in galleries are relatively recent events. However, much has occurred from the first exhibitions of the 1970s to the present day. This article will look at everything that has happened since then, showing how the inclusion of works by graffiti writers and street artists in the commercial art market has influenced the art and its conservation.
Paper published in the journal GE-Conservación. Volume 16, Special Supplement. Madrid, 2019. ISSN: 1989-8568.
Strategic Analysis for the Conservation of Graffiti and Aerosol Art: A Study of Strappo as a Safeguard Measure
Keywords: aerosol art, graffiti, street art, strappo, contemporary mural paintingThis paper focuses on the conservation of murals created with aerosol paint, widely known as ‘aerosol art’. In particular, this research considers and presents conservation practices related to graffiti and street art, highlighting their significance in contemporary ... mural art. In addition, the factors that render those practices as considered ‘objects of restoration’ in society are also explained, followed by a presentation of a primary approach to their preservation using the strappo detachment system.
Paper presented at ENCORE conference: Ulrich Schiessl PhD Colloquium hosted by the University of Pardubice in Litomysl (Czech Republic), 23-24 March 2017.
Published at International Journal of Young Conservators and Restorers of Works of Art, Volume 3. Academy of Fine Arts in Warsaw. Warsaw, 2019. ISSN 2544-0357.
New Methodologies and Materials on the Detachment of Contemporary Wall-Paintings
Keywords: modern and contemporary murals, detachment, strappo, aerosol paint, wall-paintingsModern and contemporary techniques on wall-paintings, like any other art procedures in contemporary art, present particularities in its execution, forms, concepts, and also in the durability of the pieces. Sometimes, these peculiarities or characteristics are difficult for ... conservators-restorers, who frequently look back to traditional methods as a starting point to evaluate and (perhaps) face unknown problems.
Focusing on contemporary wall-paintings, the detachment –widely criticised and almost obsolete method– can in some cases be considered as a means of conservation. But, despite its possibilities, without the knowledge of the behavior of the new artistic techniques within the conservation method applied, their application can lead to ruin the artwork completely. The following paper aims to present an exhaustive study on the adaptation and application of strappo detachment on one of the most used techniques in wall support nowadays: aerosol paint.
Paper presented at 19ª Jornada de Conservación de Arte Contemporáneo, hosted by Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofia in Madrid (Spain), February 2018.
Published at Conservación de Arte Contemporáneo, Actas de la 19ª Jornada. MNCARS. Madrid, 2019. NIPO: 828-19-040-5.
When Documenting Doesn’t Cut It: Opportunities and Alternatives to Intangible Conservation
Keywords: Urban Art, Contemporary Art, Intangible Conservation, Tangible Conservation, Conservation, RestorationConservation of urban art is a subject in vogue in contemporary academic research. It may seem like a new topic of discussion – a new field of understanding – but the preservation of the ideas and forms of urban art practices has certainly been present since the very ... beginning of graffiti and street art. Although generally practices related to urban art are considered ephemeral, when an artwork, style or general practice acquires value, conservation is the only way to prolong its idea – its life. The proceedings to allow that statement could be twofold: The first one is using intangible conservation mechanisms as simple as keeping the idea by photographic and video records; promoting spaces for the practices; documentation of styles, forms, ideas, states; developing new researches, and so on. The second, main topic of discussion in this paper, is the application of more intricate mechanisms when wider objectives are presented because of the significant importance of the artwork for the public, based on trying to keep the materiality of the artwork in addition to maintaining its idea. In these cases, tangible conservation mechanisms should be applied. This paper questions the limits of intangible conservation and the possibilities that tangible conservation could offer in the physical and conceptual preservation of the alternative contemporary art practices that involve urban art. Nevertheless, it is not forgotten that the application of conservation-restoration mechanisms could be questioned, so additionally to the alternatives that intangible conservation offers, the criteria used for its general application will be reviewed.
Paper presented at Street Art & Urban Creativity (SAUC) Conference hosted by the Faculty of Fine Arts in Lisbon (Portugal), July 2017.
Published at Street Art & Urban Creativity Scientific Journal – Intangible Heritage. Volume 3, issue 1. Lisbon, 2017. ISSN 2183-3869.
Strategic Analysis for the Conservation of Graffiti and Aerosol Art: A Study of Strappo as a Safeguard Measure [Doctoral Thesis]
Keywords: conservation, graffiti, street art, strappo, detachment, contemporary art, aerosol art, aerosol paint, adaptation, traditional technique, new insightsGraffiti and street art are two young artistic and expressive manifestations present – both directly or indirectly – in the day-to-day life of any city. Beyond their initial categorization as vandal expressions far from the perception of an organized society, graffiti and street art have transformed the conception of mural art and regained ... its importance again in the public environment. Despite the rejection that these practices have suffered over the years – due to the illegal condition/lack of permission of their actions – many people do not pay attention to those particularities, and focus on what the artworks have to offer to the public and environment. This produces the promotion of maintenance campaigns to keep them in their best state inside – or outside – from where they were created. However, the procedures, the techniques and the concepts, differ from a traditional practice. This added to the youth, general incomprehension and variety of materials, studies related to their conservation in this matter are scarce.
The research made for this doctoral thesis tries to compensate for this shortage, initiating a research on mechanisms of conservation and restoration applicable to those typologies of artworks. In order to achieve this,a first approach to understand their concepts, objectives, relationships with the environment and procedures has been completed. Similarly, the research has focussed on the application of a particular conservation system: the strappo detachment; adapting this mechanism to aerosol paint on wall support as a last safeguard possibility.
For all this, the research in this doctoral thesis is divided into two distinct but continuous parts, the theoretical corpus and the experimental corpus, which are distributed as follows.
Firstly, the theoretical corpus deals with all those questions related to the understanding of contemporary graffiti as a social artistic movement, begun in the late 1960s in the United States. In addition to its relationship with other artistic practices, and with it, the development of what is known nowadays as street art. At the same time, it exposes the importance that both forms of independent public art have for contemporary mural art and the peculiarities that the aerosol painting offers within it. And, finally, the possibilities of the application of conservation and restoration processes on the same practices. Also, considering the opinion of graffiti writers and street artists, the public support, and the criteria and adaptations needed in behalf of restoration in contemporary times and specifically, the use of the detachment systems.
Secondly, the experimental corpus, which focuses on the application of the strappo system following the reflections provided by the theoretical corpus. This part presents an in depth study of material possibilities in the application of strappo on wall-paintings made with aerosol paint, a fundamental technique in graffiti and very recurrent in street art murals. In this way, structured trials are presented in which diverse materials are combined.
The results are evaluated both during and at the end of the processes, individually and in general. Also, all the trials used have the objective to analyse the changes present in their surface. Therefore, this research aims only to open the way to the possibilities of conservation of these alternative artistic practices, adapting some particularities of graffiti and street art to the perspective of art restoration theory and practice.
Amor García, RL. ANÁLISIS DE ACTUACIÓN PARA LA CONSERVACIÓN DE GRAFITIS Y PINTURA MURAL EN AEROSOL. ESTUDIO DEL STRAPPO COMO MEDIDA DE SALVAGUARDA [Unpublished Doctoral Thesis]. Universitat Politècnica de València. Valencia, 2017. DOI:10.4995/Thesis/10251/89086.
New Insights for Creative Art Processes. Collaboration and Experimentation with Contemporary Artists
Keywords: conservation, material experimentation, creative process, collaboration, contemporary artistsThe artists’ idea of exploration in new creative fields frequently triggers the collaboration between artists and other professionals. Understanding the experimentation which comes from it is the art restorers and specialists’ main duty, as they are forced to establish new standards ... and increase their knowledge on the use of new materials. Consequently, the communication between artists and restorers is frequent nowadays in the form of interviews but also with practical collaborations. This paper tries to show how productive collaborations can be for artists during the creative process in terms of production and possibilities, and for restorers, because this would be the best way to learn about the art concept and its materiality, which will be helpful for the artwork’s future conservation.
Co-authors: Eva Mariana Fuentes Duran and Mª Pilar Soriano Sancho
Paper presented at 5th international conference Youth in Conservation of Cultural Heritage YOCOCU 2016, held at Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofia in Madrid (Spain), from 21st to 23rd September 2016.
Published at journal GE-Conservación, YOCOCU 2016 Special Issue. Volume 11. Madrid, 2017. ISSN: 1989-8568.
Study on Aerosol Art Transfers Related to Graffiti and Street Art: Possibilities, Incompatibilities and Alternatives
Keywords: detachment, strappo, aerosol art, street art, graffiti, wall-painting, emergency measures
Strappo detachment method appeared in the 18th century as an evolution of detachment methods, for the transfer and relocation of wall paintings. Despite that this method allowed the ex-situ conservation, it could produce a great damage in the painting ... either because of a wrong application or because of an overuse. The conservation-restoration theories establish that any detachment method can be used in restricted situations, as the detachment is considered as an emergency action for conservation – it would be used only when other systems are impossible to apply. Unfortunately, this idea is not always contemplated. In order to conserve graffiti and street art, strappo method could be a possibility, but firstly, it is our duty as restorers to arrange the bases which must be followed to practice this method. Respect for the artist's concept and artwork itself will be the main ideas to apply any emergency action for the conservation of those practices.
Paper published at journal GE-Conservación. Volume 10, Special Supplement. Madrid, 2016. ISSN: 1989-8568.
First Trials for the Conservation of Wall-Paintings Made with Aerosol Paint Using the Strappo System
Keywords: graffiti, street art, strappo, aerosol paint, wall-painting, conservationAerosol paint is one of the most widespread techniques in mural art today; and although the practices that most use this pictorial technique -graffiti and street art- started independently from conventional art, their recognition within more ‘traditional’ environments ... is rising every day. Consequently, problems related to conservation appear.Regarding the concept, these so-called ‘ephemeral’ practices are disassociated from this concept by adopting ‘values’ as works of art, recognised by the public. And in terms of materiality, their deterioration is imminent, either due to the conditions in which they are found and / or due to the lack of means to prevent it.
In order to help in the study and conservation of aerosol paint on the wall support, a research has been proposed that deals with the preservation of this technique in extreme cases, and for which an in-depth experimentation has been carried out on the use of the strappo in the conservation of murals, that painted with enamels in spray, could not be conserved otherwise; analysing not only the materials involved in the conservation process, but also, setting strict performance criteria in line with the artist's desire and respect for the work.
Papers presented at EMERGE 2016. II Jornadas de Investigación Emergente en Conservación y Restauración, held at Fine Arts Faculty, Universitat Politècnica de València, in Valencia (Spain), 26th October 2016.
Published at EMERGE 2016. II Jornadas de Investigación Emergente en Conservación y Restauración. Libro de Actas. Universitat Politècnica de València. Valencia, 2016. ISBN: 978-84-9048-575-0.
Vandalism on Graffiti and on Other Aerosol Mural Art
Keywords: graffiti, wall-painting , conservation, contemporary art, vandalism, tagging, aerosol paint, public environment, throw-up, Natural Communicative ManifestationVandalism by means of writing is a constant issue in current societies. Commonly present in elements in the public environment, the reasons why this occurs are seldom understood (or even questioned) by the public, who sees this as a degradation of the aesthetic ... appearance of the urban space without a specific intention - more than destroying something that previously looked ‘nice’. Despite what can be generally thought, vandalism by writing is not uniquely linked to the Graffiti movement (which possess their own rules about tagging and the ‘Getting up’) but also to popular graffiti done by any individual (also known as ‘Natural Communicative Manifestation’). It can also occur anywhere, so any surface could face aesthetic destruction on their appearance through vandalism. In this way, even mural graffiti or any public mural art painted with aerosol paint are also objects of this.
Due to the difficulties to understand the different possibilities and aims behind what it is considered vandalism, the following paper will try to explain all this set of variations of terminology and specifications of vandalism forms, aiming to favor a better understanding between graffiti forms, and explain both the reasons and the causes of the vandalism practices in the public environment.
Additional paper: Aproximación a la viabilidad del uso de strappo en la conservación de grafitis (pp. 381-392).
Co-author: Juan Noguera-Camara.
Papers presented at Modern and Contemporary Mural Paintings: technique, conservation and Access conference, held at Fine Arts Faculty, Universitat Politècnica de València, in Valencia (Spain), 4-5th May 2012..
Published at Conservation Issues in Modern and Contemporary Murals. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. Newcastle Upon Tyne, 2015. ISBN: 978-1-4438-7233-1
Conservation Condition Survey of Banksy’s Public Interventions in London [in 2013]
Keywords: street art, graffiti, Banksy, stencil, aerosol paint, conservation, preservation, contemporary art, art marketNowadays, street art and graffiti are making their way into the contemporary art world through art galleries, auction houses and the popular recognition of certain artists who began their careers in parallel to a purely artistic practice. One of these examples is ... the street (and former graffiti) artist Banksy. Despite his identity being unknown, his work is widely recognised, being considerably valued in the art market. Its theme focuses on a pure social criticism of the ruling classes and the ridicule of the vices and customs of today's society. In so, Banksy has been a pioneer in gaining recognition beyond the street or public space, and not only for his critical work but also for news parallel to his identity, which focuses his works abroad in a controversy regarding the sale, preservation and possession of each of the pieces. That is why a large part of the cities in which the artist has intervened freely (most of the time illegally) decide to preserve some pieces in situ, applying relatively functional conservation systems, as is the case in the city of London and that are the object of study in this paper.
Additional paper: Revisión historiográfica del Grafiti y el Street Art, y su situación actual en el entorno urbano (pp. 59-66)
Papers presented at I Congreso de Investigadores en Arte: El Arte Necesario. La Investigación Artística en un Contexto de Crisis, held at Universitat Politècnica de València in Valencia (Spain), 11-13th June 2013.
Published at El Arte Necesario, I Congreso La Investigación Artística en un Contexto de Crisis. Sedema Editorial. Valencia, 2014. ISBN: 978-84-939084-2-3.
Changes in Conceptuality: The Ephemeral and the Persisting in Graffiti and Street Art. The Strappo on Aerosol Wall-Paintings
Keywords: conservation, graffiti, street art, detachment, strappo, ephemeralThe evolution of street art and graffiti, together with the rising acceptance of these practices by the public in recent years, has produced changes in the ideas or concepts properly linked to them, introducing themselves as pure practices of contemporary art. These changes ... are mainly the acquisition of values and recognition of the works, which consequently causes their conservation to be estimated in specific cases. The approach of this work is based on the study of all the changes that these practices have undergone from the beginning of the Graffiti movement in the 60-70s to the present days, and how these changes have been triggers in favor of the recognition of the practices, the in-depth study of the pieces and their discourse and establishing as possible the safeguarding of some works located in the public environment. Knowing the difficulty of applying conservation mechanisms to works in the street, the use of strappo is proposed as a viable safeguard measure, whenever possible and only when there is no other better conservation mechanism for the work.
Published at EMERGE 2014. Jornadas de Investigación Emergente en Conservación y Restauración. Libro de Actas. Universitat Politècnica de València. Valencia, 2014. ISBN: 978-84-9048-317-6.
Review of Materials Used on the Reverse of Strappo-Detached Enamel Paintings
Keywords: contemporary murals, strappo, graffiti, aerosol paint, backing reinforcement, detachment, contemporary art, street art, graffiti, conservationTraditionally, various materials have been used to reinforce the reverse of detached painting. Especially in the case of Strappo, since as it is the exclusive removal of the pictorial film, it requires an adhesive with a high adhesion capacity that favors the union between ... the reinforcement fabric on the reverse and paint. However, the treatment becomes complicated when considering the reinforcement in contemporary pictorial techniques, as in the case of aerosol paints.
As a research base, different reinforcement tests have been carried out, using a total of eight variants of consolidants, applied on the back of graffiti removed by strappo detachment. All this was carried out taking into account the possibility of conserving graffiti, the nature of the pictorial technique (aerosol paint) and the use of materials in the restoration of traditional mural paintings.
Co-authors: Mercedes Sánchez Pons and Mª Pilar Soriano Sancho
Paper presented at 13ª Jornada de Conservación de Arte Contemporáneo, hosted by Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofia in Madrid (Spain), February 2012.
Published at Conservación de Arte Contemporáneo, Actas de la 13ª Jornada. MNCARS. Madrid, 2013. ISBN: 978-84-8026-463-1.
Conservation of Graffiti at Poliniza Urban Art Festival 2010
Keywords: graffiti, street art, detachment, streppo, conservation, aerosol paint, legal murals, art festivalThe Poliniza Urban Art Festival, held at the Universitat Politècnica de València since 2006, is a cultural event originated for the production of graffiti and street art inside the university campus. Every year, different street artists are selected to perform their work on ... the facades of school and college buildings on the Vera Campus. These wall supports are used repeatedly each year, so mural artworks from previous editions are lost due to the superposition of new ones, leaving only the photographic record in the annual catalog of the event for future generations.
In order to avoid the physical loss of two of the Poliniza 2010 mural paintings, the strappo detachment was applied as a safeguard system, selecting parts that would provide a key record of each work and that would maintain the living image of the whole. After an exhaustive intervention, the material conservation of the works was achieved, allowing them to remain within the environment in which they were executed, the university, for years.
Co-authors: Mª Pilar Soriano Sancho and Mercedes Sánchez Pons
Published at Arché. Publicación del Instituto Universitario de Restauración del Patrimonio. Volumes 6-7. Instituto Universitario de Restauración del Patrimonio de la UPV. Valencia, 2011/2012. ISSN: 1887-3960.